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Field Guides Tour Report
Panama's Canopy Tower II 2015
Feb 8, 2015 to Feb 14, 2015
John Rowlett & Alexis Sanchez

Black-breasted Puffbird beside the Tower (Photo by guide John Rowlett)

A tour to the Canopy Tower is simply a great introduction to Middle American birds, especially when it can simultaneously serve as an escape from the frozen north. (And don't forget to see the triplist for our extension to the Canopy Lodge, too!) Our trip was especially rewarding in that it combined some thrilling avian encounters with a great group of participants whose affability and relaxed approach to birding contributed enormously to a whole score of memorable events.

Notable highlights included, in phylogenetic order: a roosting Great Tinamou beside the road on our night drive; five Masked Ducks; an intricately patterned, immature Rufescent Tiger-Heron; a fancy Capped Heron and four nesting Boat-billed Herons; an eleven-raptor day (without Roadside, Broad-wing, or Short-tailed!), including a surprising Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle high above Ammo Dump that plummeted about 100 feet in a playful stoop to pull out of it overhead for better views; a cool rufous morph Tiny Hawk that seemed on territory as it circled, settled, circled, and settled, all the while vocalizing insistently; scope studies of a Double-toothed Kite carefully monitoring the activity of an unruly group of capuchins; a most demonstrative Pheasant Cuckoo; scope views of a Common Potoo likely on a nest; a range of hummers, including Band-tailed Barbthroat and Rufous-crested Coquette; some showy trogons and motmots; an American Pygmy-Kingfisher; all four puffbirds occurring in the Canal Zone; a pair of nesting Crimson-crested Woodpeckers; at least one enormous army ant swarm with the usual attendants, including Spotted and, though spread out, Ocellated antbirds; a pair of striking Black-striped Woodcreepers; a first-winter Willow Flycatcher, our most noteworthy boreal migrant; four species of colorful manakins; a responsive Rufous-winged Schiffornis that displayed back and forth before us; great studies of a family of Song Wrens; and flashy Yellow-tailed as well as Yellow-backed orioles. If I've overlooked one of your highlights, I hope you'll at least find it annotated in the triplist.

The only disappointments--besides not having more time!--were encountering zero owls and no Great Potoo on our night drive (although we were strong on mammals, including a wooly opossum, two-toed sloths, and an Olingo) and being fogged in on our morning at the Discovery Center tower. This cost us some early morning excitement, no doubt, including, Blue Cotinga, only one male of which we saw--and that at a great distance as the fog was lifting.

This tour was a special treat for me to do, and I thank all of you for making it so enjoyable. Our trip was unusual in that I had previously birded with but one of you, so it was gratifying to meet seven new friends while renewing the pleasure of birding with Kevin. A big thanks to Danny, of course, for producing all the lovely videos included in the on-line triplist. I wish also to thank my friend Alexis for his sharp eye, attentive guiding, and keen local knowledge. I hope to see each of you on another birding tour somewhere, sometime.


One of the following keys may be shown in brackets for individual species as appropriate: * = heard only, I = introduced, E = endemic, N = nesting, a = austral migrant, b = boreal migrant

Tinamidae (Tinamous)
GREAT TINAMOU (Tinamus major) – Heard several nights from the Tower, and seen magnificently as it roosted--appearing as a big, gray ball with a tiny head--in a small tree beside Semaphore Hill Road during our night drive. One of our members would seem to have confused it with a Great Potoo!
Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Waterfowl)
BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) – Four were a nice surprise at the marina, Gamboa Resort.
BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Anas discors) – At least 20 or so at the marina, Gamboa Resort. [b]
MASKED DUCK (Nomonyx dominicus) – We lucked into 5 birds at the Gamboa marina. It has been some time since I've had Masked Duck on the tour. It certainly isn't regular anymore.
Cracidae (Guans, Chachalacas, and Curassows)
GRAY-HEADED CHACHALACA (Ortalis cinereiceps) – Seen at Ammo Dump Pond.
Odontophoridae (New World Quail)
MARBLED WOOD-QUAIL (Odontophorus gujanensis) – Heard singing below the Tower on a couple of occasions. [*]
Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)

Immature Rufescent Tiger-Heron seemingly oblivious to our presence (Photo by guide John Rowlett)

MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens) – Seen on most days.
Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and Shags)
NEOTROPIC CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) – One flew over the Miraflores Locks during our visit there.
Pelecanidae (Pelicans)
BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis) – Regular along the Canal.
Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON (Tigrisoma lineatum) – A lovely immature posed for us at Ammo Dump Pond.
GREAT EGRET (Ardea alba)
LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) – One adult and several immatures.
TRICOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) – One seen at the marina, Gamboa Resort.
GREEN HERON (Butorides virescens) – One at Summit Ponds. [b]
STRIATED HERON (Butorides striata) – Seen at Ammo Dump Pond and Summit Ponds.
CAPPED HERON (Pilherodius pileatus) – What a beauty! One of the highlights of the trip for many. We noted how this heron flies with its wings held below the horizontal.
BOAT-BILLED HERON (SOUTHERN) (Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis) – At least four birds seen on their large stick nests at Summit Ponds; this taxon has "dirty" or buffy underparts. [N]
Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) – Seen daily.
TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) – Seen daily.
KING VULTURE (Sarcoramphus papa) – One seen high over Semaphore Hill Road on our first full day of birding.
Pandionidae (Osprey)
OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) – Several wintering in the area. [b]
Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
GRAY-HEADED KITE (Leptodon cayanensis) – Great study of a responsive bird at Ammo Dump Pond.
BLACK HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus tyrannus) – One heard high above Semaphore Hill Road, but we were unable to locate it for the trees. [*]
ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus ornatus) – Another hawk-eagle heard only, this one a ways out Pipeline Road. [*]
BLACK-AND-WHITE HAWK-EAGLE (Spizaetus melanoleucus) – This was a great surprise and a real treat! Alexis spotted this hawk-eagle high above Ammo Dump Pond, where we've never seen one before; as we watched, it stooped for more than 100 feet and gave us great views before disappearing. A very cool bird.
DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE (Harpagus bidentatus) – One seen splendidly as it perched outside the entrance to the Discovery Center along Pipeline Road. Characteristically, it was attending a troop of capuchins that was barging through the canopy in order to capture any prey flushed by such rambunctious monkey business.

Gray-headed Kite on alert (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
PLUMBEOUS KITE (Ictinia plumbea) – A pair seen flying over Pipeline Road, perhaps an early arrival as this species spends the non-breeding season in South America and return in February to Middle America. [a]
TINY HAWK (Accipiter superciliosus) – Another highlight of the trip was enjoying many passes and several settled views of a vocalizing bird along Pipeline Road. Tiny Hawks are scarce throughout their range, and rufous morphs like the one we saw are rarer still. Its behavior suggested a bird on territory.
COMMON BLACK HAWK (MANGROVE) (Buteogallus anthracinus bangsi) – Lynette had a quick look from the Rainfomobile at what was surely this species.
GREAT BLACK HAWK (Buteogallus urubitinga urubitinga) – One seen from the Discovery Center Tower on Pipeline.
WHITE HAWK (Pseudastur albicollis) – One seen briefly above Semaphore Hill Road our first full day.
BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus) – An immature seen on our last day. Normally we see more wintering in the Canal Zone. [b]
GRAY-LINED HAWK (Buteo nitidus) – One heard persistently from Ammo Dump Pond, but the bird would not move into view in response to playback. This is now split again from Gray Hawk. [*]
SHORT-TAILED HAWK (Buteo brachyurus) – Several seen about, including a couple from the Tower.
Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
WHITE-THROATED CRAKE (Laterallus albigularis) – Heard at Ammo Dump Pond. [*]
PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrio martinicus) – A couple seen at the marina, Gamboa Resort.
COMMON GALLINULE (Gallinula galeata) – Numerous at the marina, Gamboa Resort.
Jacanidae (Jacanas)
WATTLED JACANA (Jacana jacana) – Several at the marina, Gamboa, including young birds.
Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
LAUGHING GULL (Leucophaeus atricilla) – Seen at Miraflores Locks.
GULL-BILLED TERN (Gelochelidon nilotica) – Seen at the marina, Gamboa Resort.
ROYAL TERN (Thalasseus maximus) – Several in the Canal Zone.
Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)

Our Pheasant Cuckoo (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
PALE-VENTED PIGEON (Patagioenas cayennensis) – Best looks came at Ammo Dump Pond, but they were scattered throughout the Zone, usually near water.
SCALED PIGEON (Patagioenas speciosa) – Fine scope views of this big attractive pigeon from the Tower.
SHORT-BILLED PIGEON (Patagioenas nigrirostris) – Scoped nicely from the Discovery Center Tower after the fog lifted.
RUDDY GROUND-DOVE (Columbina talpacoti) – Common in disturbed areas.
WHITE-TIPPED DOVE (Leptotila verreauxi) – Seen flying off the road on Semaphore Hill and at Metro Park.
Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
SQUIRREL CUCKOO (Piaya cayana) – Several excellent views; as Bill commented when one scooted up several tree limbs, "you can see why it's called a Squirrel Cuckoo."
PHEASANT CUCKOO (Dromococcyx phasianellus) – An electrifying encounter with a bird on Pipeline Road. After we had thoroughly studied it in the scope, it flew down to the ground (where this species spends considerable time when not singing) and performed further. What a small bill, what a big tail!
GREATER ANI (Crotophaga major) – Nice views of a pair at Ammo Dump Pond, then another four at the marina, Gamboa.
SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) – Seen on the edge of Ammo Dump Pond.
Strigidae (Owls)
MOTTLED OWL (Ciccaba virgata) – Heard on a couple of nights from the Tower but not to be found on our night drive. [*]
Caprimulgidae (Nightjars and Allies)
COMMON PAURAQUE (Nyctidromus albicollis) – Seen very well near Summit Pond on our night drive.
Nyctibiidae (Potoos)
COMMON POTOO (Nyctibius griseus) – The eye of one seen (!) on our night drive along Semaphore Hill Road; then Alexis relocated it in the daylight on the same perch and we scoped it properly for great views. Our bird could well have been on an egg.
Apodidae (Swifts)
SHORT-TAILED SWIFT (Chaetura brachyura) – A few of these here and there.
BAND-RUMPED SWIFT (Chaetura spinicaudus) – Seen daily; the default Chaetura in the Canal Zone.
LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT (Panyptila cayennensis) – Three of these "miniature Orcas" passed over the Tower before breakfast our last morning.
Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN (Florisuga mellivora) – The most common hummer at the Tower; males and females seen well daily.

Band-tailed Barbthroat showing its barbs! (Photo by guide John Rowlett)

BAND-TAILED BARBTHROAT (Threnetes ruckeri) – An excellent study of this rather scarce hummer along Pipeline Road. We noted the "barbs" on its throat as well as the band on its tail.
LONG-BILLED HERMIT (Phaethornis longirostris) – Common at the Tower and encountered daily. A male displaying at its lek was seen at Rainforest Discovery Center.
STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT (Phaethornis striigularis) – Quick encounters with several birds, mostly in flight.
BLACK-THROATED MANGO (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – A male and female (on the nest) were seen at Ammo Dump Pond; we had another male at Summit Ponds. [N]
RUFOUS-CRESTED COQUETTE (Lophornis delattrei) – A smashing male seen perched several times at the Rainforest Discovery Center; its lovely rufous crest and its je ne sais quoi led to our bestowing a bird name on Carolyn.
WHITE-VENTED PLUMELETEER (Chalybura buffonii) – One seen at Metro Park.
BLUE-CHESTED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia amabilis) – Not uncommon; seen on several days.
SNOWY-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia edward edward) – One seen from the Tower, another at Rainforest Discovery Center; this, the nominate taxon, is endemic to Panama from the Zone east through Darien. [E]
RUFOUS-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia tzacatl) – Fairly common; seen on at least four days.
VIOLET-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Damophila julie) – Some fine views of this lovely hummer at the Tower feeders and elsewhere.
Trogonidae (Trogons)
SLATY-TAILED TROGON (Trogon massena) – A pretty male seen at Metro Park. This species, quite similar to Black-tailed, has an orange (not yellow) bill and no white collar across the breast.
BLACK-TAILED TROGON (Trogon melanurus) – Good looks at a female along Pipeline Road; also at Gamboa Resort.
GARTERED TROGON (Trogon caligatus) – A male well seen at Metro Park; also heard on a few occasions. Formerly called Violaceous Trogon (before it was split).
BLACK-THROATED TROGON (Trogon rufus) – A beautiful male! However, this bird was named for the female (which is rufous).
Momotidae (Motmots)

Male Slaty-tailed Trogon (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
WHOOPING MOTMOT (WHOOPING) (Momotus subrufescens conexus) – Excellent views of a pair at Metro Park; recently split from Blue-crowned Motmot.
RUFOUS MOTMOT (Baryphthengus martii) – Good looks at a bird our last day.
BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT (Electron platyrhynchum) – The most common motmot in the Canal Zone; we had multiple encounters.
Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
RINGED KINGFISHER (Megaceryle torquata) – Our best views were at Summit Ponds.
GREEN KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle americana) – One seen at Summit Ponds.
AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER (Chloroceryle aenea) – Terrific to see this miniscule beauty at Summit Ponds.
Bucconidae (Puffbirds)
WHITE-NECKED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus hyperrhynchus) – A responsive bird seen nicely at our lunch stop on Pipeline Road.
BLACK-BREASTED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus pectoralis) – Seen or heard daily; this smart-looking puffbird is the most common taxon of the black-and-white puffbirds found in the Zone.
PIED PUFFBIRD (Notharchus tectus) – The smallest of the puffbirds found in Panama; we had one along Pipeline Road.
WHITE-WHISKERED PUFFBIRD (Malacoptila panamensis) – Seen nicely on several occasions, our first along Semaphore Hill Road our first full birding day.
Galbulidae (Jacamars)
GREAT JACAMAR (Jacamerops aureus) – Though I saw this bird from the Rainfomobile near the bottom of Semaphore Hill, we were unable to get it to respond to playback; since I was the only one to see it, I have entered it as "heard only" in reference to the one we heard from the Rainforest Discovery Tower. [*]
Ramphastidae (Toucans)

Crimson-crested Woodpecker at nest hole, with Bicolored Antbirds vocalizing (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
COLLARED ARACARI (Pteroglossus torquatus) – Seen our first morning along Semaphore Hill Road; again along Pipeline Road.
KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN (Ramphastos sulfuratus) – Many seen well daily, perhaps best from the Tower; their habit of displaying in groups from exposed limbs late in the day was witnessed on several occasions.
Picidae (Woodpeckers)
RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes rubricapillus) – Relative of the Nearctic Red-bellied, this is the most common woodpecker in the Canal Zone.
CINNAMON WOODPECKER (Celeus loricatus) – This handsome woodpecker was seen on both our days along Pipeline Road, first from the Rainforest Discovery Tower.
CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER (Campephilus melanoleucos) – Great views of a pair nest-building, exchanging places in the cavity, and showing off along Semaphore Hill Road.
Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
SLATY-BACKED FOREST-FALCON (Micrastur mirandollei) – Heard along Pipeline Road. [*]
YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA (Milvago chimachima) – Singletons of this slim caracara were seen in open areas almost daily.
Psittacidae (New World and African Parrots)
ORANGE-CHINNED PARAKEET (Brotogeris jugularis) – Seen perched on several occasions when their brown shoulder patches were more apparent than their orange chins! Often flying over in semi-open country.
BROWN-HOODED PARROT (Pyrilia haematotis) – Seen best along Pipeline Road.
BLUE-HEADED PARROT (Pionus menstruus) – Seen almost daily, this colorful parrot was first seen well from the Tower.
RED-LORED PARROT (Amazona autumnalis) – The common Amazona in the Canal Zone; we saw them best from the Tower, often in flight.
MEALY PARROT (Amazona farinosa) – The largest Amazona in Panama; this parrot flies with shallower wingbeats than its Red-lored relative. Seen and heard best from the Tower.
Thamnophilidae (Typical Antbirds)

Red-lored Parrot carefully working over fruit (video by participant Danny Shelton)
FASCIATED ANTSHRIKE (Cymbilaimus lineatus) – Some of us had a male from the Tower, and we all saw a female along Pipeline Road.
BARRED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus doliatus) – Two seen at Ammo Dump Pond.
BLACK-CROWNED ANTSHRIKE (Thamnophilus atrinucha) – Formerly known as Western Slaty-Antshrike, this species, common in the Canal Zone, is no longer recognized as belonging to the Slaty-Antshrike group at all; yet it is still placed in Thamnophilus.
SPOT-CROWNED ANTVIREO (Dysithamnus puncticeps) – A small group along Pipeline Road; often leads mixed-species flocks.
CHECKER-THROATED ANTWREN (Epinecrophylla fulviventris) – A pair seen along Semaphore Hill Road.
WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN (Myrmotherula axillaris) – Several seen nicely; both sexes show white in the axillars.
DOT-WINGED ANTWREN (Microrhopias quixensis) – Seen well, both males and females.
DUSKY ANTBIRD (Cercomacra tyrannina) – Heard along Semaphore Hill Road and at Metro Park; seen at Gamboa Resort.
WHITE-BELLIED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza longipes) – Extraordinary views at Metro Park; heard at Gamboa Resort.
CHESTNUT-BACKED ANTBIRD (Myrmeciza exsul) – Seen at our large, raiding army ant swarm along Semaphore Hill Road.
BICOLORED ANTBIRD (Gymnopithys bicolor bicolor) – Lynette, Kevin, and Danny had Bicoloreds at an ant swarm along Semaphore Hill Road; we all caught up with them on our last day of birding.
SPOTTED ANTBIRD (Hylophylax naevioides) – A beautifully marked antbird; seen well, males and females, along Semaphore Hill Road.
OCELLATED ANTBIRD (Phaenostictus mcleannani) – Lynette saw a few of these at an ant swarm on Semaphore Hill; the rest of us caught up at the eleventh hour on Semaphore Hill, Friday, Feb 13, I guess our lucky day. What a spectacular bird!
Furnariidae (Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers)
OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER (GRAYISH) (Sittasomus griseicapillus sylvioides) – One seen from the Tower by Danny, Gwen, and John.
RUDDY WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla homochroa) – A real surprise along Semaphore Hill Road. This species is scarce in central Panama; it got away before we could really enjoy it. Another species usually associated with army ants.
PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) – Several seen taking advantage of the raiding army ants.
NORTHERN BARRED-WOODCREEPER (Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae) – One seen along Semaphore Hill Road at a raiding army ant swarm by Lynette, Danny, and Kevin.
COCOA WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus susurrans) – Seen and heard at the Tower and along Pipeline.
BLACK-STRIPED WOODCREEPER (Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus) – The fanciest woodcreeper in the Canal Zone; we had nice views of a pair of accommodating birds along Pipeline Road.
PLAIN XENOPS (Xenops minutus) – Two pairs were seen, one along Semaphore Hill Road, another at Metro Park.
Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)

Bicolored Antbird (Photo by participant Danny Shelton)

BROWN-CAPPED TYRANNULET (Ornithion brunneicapillus) – Seen very well from the Tower and from the Discovery Center Tower; this flycatcher was nesting in a small tree growing in the parking lot at the Tower.
SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET (Camptostoma obsoletum) – One seen at Ammo Dump Pond.
YELLOW TYRANNULET (Capsiempis flaveola) [*]
YELLOW-CROWNED TYRANNULET (Tyrannulus elatus) [*]
FOREST ELAENIA (Myiopagis gaimardii) – Seen along Semaphore Hill Road and at Metro Park.
GRAY ELAENIA (Myiopagis caniceps absita) – One female seen along Pipeline Road.
YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA (Elaenia flavogaster) – Seen at Gamboa Resort.
OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Mionectes oleagineus) – One seen by some as we approached Summit Ponds.
PALTRY TYRANNULET (Zimmerius vilissimus) – Mostly heard, but glimpsed the last day by some.
BLACK-CAPPED PYGMY-TYRANT (Myiornis atricapillus) – One seen nicely along Pipeline Road.
SOUTHERN BENTBILL (Oncostoma olivaceum) – Seen perhaps best along Pipeline Road, but also seen at Metro Park.
COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum cinereum) – Best seen at Metro Park; a pretty mite.
BLACK-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER (Todirostrum nigriceps) – Seen along Semaphore Hill Road and Pipeline Road; even smaller than its cousin, the Common.
BROWNISH TWISTWING (Cnipodectes subbrunneus) – Heard (only) along Pipeline Road. [*]
OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) – Seen along Semaphore Hill Road and briefly by John along the road to Summit Ponds.
YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-OLIVE) (Tolmomyias sulphurescens flavoolivaceus) – Seen well at Metro Park.
YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (YELLOW-MARGINED) (Tolmomyias assimilis flavotectus) – One seen well from the balcony of the Discovery Center.
GOLDEN-CROWNED SPADEBILL (Platyrinchus coronatus) – Heard along the lower section of Semaphore Hill Road. [*]
RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Terenotriccus erythrurus) – Seen along Pipeline Road, but heard on several occasions, including along Semaphore Hill Road.
WILLOW FLYCATCHER (Empidonax traillii) – Nice scope views of this Empid at the edge of the tall grass near Summit Ponds. [b]
BRIGHT-RUMPED ATTILA (Attila spadiceus) – Heard (only) along Pipeline Road while we were preoccupied with the Tiny Hawk. [*]
DUSKY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tuberculifer) – Seen on Semaphore Hill and at Metro Park.
PANAMA FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus panamensis) – Great looks at this Myiarchus, perhaps best in the Gumbo Limbos near Summit Ponds; we noted the lack of any rufous in this species' wings and tail.
GREAT CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) – Heard along Pipeline Road near where we ate our lunch. [b*]

Lesser Kiskadee (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
LESSER KISKADEE (Pitangus lictor) – Seen very well at Ammo Dump Pond.
GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) – Seen on several occasions; we observed the big, bulky nest of this kiskadee at Gamboa Resort. [N]
BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER (Megarynchus pitangua) – Seen at Summit Pond and Gamboa Resort.
RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes cayanensis) – Studied thoroughly at Ammo Dump Pond. [N]
SOCIAL FLYCATCHER (Myiozetetes similis) – Seen well almost daily.
STREAKED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes maculatus) – Seen well, perhaps best near Summit Ponds.
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) – Common at the edge; seen daily.
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus savana) – One seen from the Tower.
Cotingidae (Cotingas)
PURPLE-THROATED FRUITCROW (Querula purpurata) – Seen well, males and females, along Pipeline Road.
BLUE COTINGA (Cotinga nattererii) – A very distant male was seen (through the scope, fortunately) from the Discovery Center Tower as the fog lifted.
Pipridae (Manakins)
LANCE-TAILED MANAKIN (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) – One male sunbathing at Metro Park.
BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN (VELVETY) (Lepidothrix coronata minuscula) – Seen nicely, males and females, from the Tower and along Semaphore Hill and Pipeline roads.
GOLDEN-COLLARED MANAKIN (Manacus vitellinus) – A very fancy manakin! Seen best along Pipeline, but present on Semaphore Hill as well.
RED-CAPPED MANAKIN (Ceratopipra mentalis) – Super studies from the Tower and elsewhere; we noted the adult males's white iridi and yellow tibia feathers--after being struck by their red heads on black bodies!
Tityridae (Tityras and Allies)
BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA (Tityra inquisitor) – A male seen near Summit Ponds, a female seen at Metro Park.
MASKED TITYRA (Tityra semifasciata) – Seen well on several days.
RUSSET-WINGED SCHIFFORNIS (Schiffornis stenorhyncha panamensis) – What a treat to see this bird along Semaphore Hill Road--and to hear its loud, delightful song! Stenorhyncha was recently split from Northern Schiffornis, and the range of panamensis, almost an endemic, is limited to eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. As we noted, its voice is very distinctive.
Vireonidae (Vireos, Shrike-Babblers, and Erpornis)

Male Red-capped Manakin drinking (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceus) – Heard (and glimpsed) from the Tower. [b*]
GOLDEN-FRONTED GREENLET (Hylophilus aurantiifrons) – Seen well at Metro Park.
LESSER GREENLET (Hylophilus decurtatus) – Seen daily, best from the Tower.
GREEN SHRIKE-VIREO (Vireolanius pulchellus) – Heard daily and seen on two occasions.
Corvidae (Crows, Jays, and Magpies)
BLACK-CHESTED JAY (Cyanocorax affinis) – A group of about six of these big, shy jays seen at the bottom of Semaphore Hill.
Hirundinidae (Swallows)
SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – Fairly common. Seen in flight and settled.
GRAY-BREASTED MARTIN (Progne chalybea) – The common martin in Panama.
MANGROVE SWALLOW (Tachycineta albilinea) – Several seen, principally near the Chagres River.
Troglodytidae (Wrens)
HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) – Common at the edge.
BLACK-BELLIED WREN (Pheugopedius fasciatoventris) – Darn. [*]
RUFOUS-BREASTED WREN (Pheugopedius rutilus) – Seen quite well at Metro Park.
PLAIN WREN (Cantorchilus modestus) – We never actually saw this species, though we heard it at Ammo Dump and Summit Ponds. [*]
BAY WREN (Cantorchilus nigricapillus) – Heard along Pipeline Road. [*]
BUFF-BREASTED WREN (Cantorchilus leucotis) – Heard at Ammo Dump Ponds. [*]
WHITE-BREASTED WOOD-WREN (Henicorhina leucosticta) – Seen best along Semaphore Hill Road.
SONG WREN (Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus) – Great encounter with a family of five birds along Pipeline Road; what songs!
Polioptilidae (Gnatcatchers)
LONG-BILLED GNATWREN (Ramphocaenus melanurus) [*]
TROPICAL GNATCATCHER (Polioptila plumbea) – Seen on several days.
Turdidae (Thrushes and Allies)
CLAY-COLORED THRUSH (Turdus grayi) – The common Turdus.
Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus gilvus) – Seen at the marina, Gamboa Resort.
Parulidae (New World Warblers)

Male White-shouldered Tanager (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Parkesia noveboracensis) – Seen here and there near water. [b]
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) – One female at Metro Park. [b]
BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER (Mniotilta varia) – Two females, Metro Park. [b]
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea) – Seen at Ammo Dump and Summit Ponds. [b]
TENNESSEE WARBLER (Oreothlypis peregrina) – Seen from the Tower and at Metro Park. [b]
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Setophaga castanea) – The most common of "our" warblers wintering in the Canal Zone; seen often from the Tower and on all days. [b]
YELLOW WARBLER (Setophaga petechia) – Seen on several days, mostly females or young males. [b]
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Setophaga pensylvanica) – Not uncommon; seen best from the Tower. [b]
Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)
GRAY-HEADED TANAGER (GRAY-CRESTED) (Eucometis penicillata cristata) – First seen by Lynette, Kevin, and Danny at their ant swarm on Semaphore Hill; then later of two occasions by all.
WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER (Tachyphonus luctuosus) – Common in the mixed flocks; perhaps seen best from the Discovery Center deck.
CRIMSON-BACKED TANAGER (Ramphocelus dimidiatus) – A striking bird, especially the male!
FLAME-RUMPED TANAGER (LEMON-RUMPED) (Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus) – A few of these were seen at Gamboa Resort.
BLUE-GRAY TANAGER (Thraupis episcopus) – Seen from the Tower and at Gamboa Resort.
PALM TANAGER (Thraupis palmarum) – Common and seen daily, our best studies coming from the Tower.
GOLDEN-HOODED TANAGER (Tangara larvata) – Seen at Ammo Dump and at Metro Park.
PLAIN-COLORED TANAGER (Tangara inornata) – Seen best at Metro Park; also seen at Gamboa Resort.
BLUE DACNIS (Dacnis cayana) – Seen daily; a pretty bird whose sexes are dimorphic--the males blue, the females green.
SHINING HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes lucidus) – Seen nicely--shining, with yellow legs--from the Tower!
RED-LEGGED HONEYCREEPER (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – Seen at the Tower, Ammo Dump Ponds, Metro Park, and, perhaps best of all, at Gamboa Resort.
GREEN HONEYCREEPER (Chlorophanes spiza) – Seen well, males and females.
VARIABLE SEEDEATER (VARIABLE) (Sporophila corvina hoffmannii) – This taxon is almost entirely black.
YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER (Sporophila nigricollis) – Seen near Summit Ponds.
ROSY THRUSH-TANAGER (Rhodinocichla rosea) – Heard at Metro Park and Gamboa Resort, but we couldn't get it into view. [*]
BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR (Saltator maximus) – Seen at Pipeline Road, Metro Park, and Gamboa Resort. Recall that "saltator" refers to a hopper or leaper.
SLATE-COLORED GROSBEAK (Saltator grossus) – Heard near the Discovery Center Tower, but it did not respond to playback. [*]
Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)

Yellow-tailed Oriole (Video by participant Danny Shelton)
SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra) – Fairly common winterer. [b]
RED-THROATED ANT-TANAGER (Habia fuscicauda) [*]
BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK (Cyanocompsa cyanoides) – Heard near the Discovery Center and at Gamboa Resort, but resisted playback. [*]
Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)
GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus) – Daily.
YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE (Icterus chrysater) – One bird way off from the Discovery Center Tower, spotted somehow by Bill! We had nice looks at its rich yellow back through the scopes.
YELLOW-TAILED ORIOLE (Icterus mesomelas) – Two very close at Ammo Dump Pond. A beauty!
BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula) – Seen on a couple of days. [b]
SCARLET-RUMPED CACIQUE (SCARLET-RUMPED) (Cacicus uropygialis microrhynchus) – Seen nicely, best out Pipeline Road; a few old nests were seen about.
YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE (Cacicus cela) – Here and there, mostly in flight. Not uncommon.
CHESTNUT-HEADED OROPENDOLA (Psarocolius wagleri) – Seen almost daily; the common oropendola in central Panama. The males are much larger than the females.
Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)
YELLOW-CROWNED EUPHONIA (Euphonia luteicapilla) – Seen at Metro Park, though heard on two other days.
THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA (Euphonia laniirostris) – The common Euphonia in the Canal Zone.
FULVOUS-VENTED EUPHONIA (Euphonia fulvicrissa) – One male seen very nicely.


Three-toed Sloth in action beside the tower (photo by guide John Rowlett)

COMMON OPOSSUM (Didelphis marsupialis) – Seen along Semaphore Hill during the daytime (!) and also during our night drive.
CENTRAL AMERICAN WOOLY OPOSSUM (Caluromys derbianus) – This was a great find on our night drive down Semaphore Hill.
GRAY-BELLIED NIGHT MONKEY (Aotus lemurinus) – A great find on our night drive; these big-eyed monkeys are always exciting to see.
MANTLED HOWLER MONKEY (Alouatta palliata) – Seen--and heard!--on numerous occasions.
WHITE-THROATED CAPUCHIN (Cebus capucinus) – Seen along Semaphore Hill, on Pipeline Road, and at Gamboa Resort, where we had a female with a baby hanging on around her neck.
HOFFMANN'S TWO-TOED SLOTH (Choloepus hoffmanni) – Great to see these sloths, the less common of the two regular occurring in Panama; this species tends to be more nocturnal than the three-toed. We managed to see the moths which live in the hairs of this species.
BROWN-THROATED THREE-TOED SLOTH (Bradypus variegatus) – Quite a few seen, including one from the Tower that gave us a remarkable performance.
NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO (Dasypus novemcinctus) – Seen along Pipeline Road.
RED-TAILED SQUIRREL (Sciurus granatensis) – Seen best along Semaphore Hill Road.
CENTRAL AMERICAN AGOUTI (Dasyprocta punctata) – Not uncommon on the forest floor.
WHITE-NOSED COATI (Nasua narica) – Seen on several occasions; our best encounter was with a group of 18-20 (including a large male) at Gamboa Resort.
ALLEN'S OLINGO (Bassaricyon alleni) – Two seen on Semaphore Hill on our night drive.


Totals for the tour: 213 bird taxa and 12 mammal taxa